EBUSCO: Zero-emission Public Transport

Context of Transport Climate Action

Until now, public transport organizations preferred to procure diesel buses because they know the financial consequences of operating them. Moreover, diesel buses comply with the emission regulations (based on the statements of the OEM/suppliers) required by central government and local authorities. This attitude made it almost impossible for innovative companies to get their innovations on natural gas engines and more recently electric vehicles accepted.

However, city centers are overcrowded and congested and field tests (on road testing) reveal that most vehicles do not comply with the emission specifications claimed by the vehicle producers (OEMs). An increasing number of local authorities are deciding to forbid the access to the city centers to old vehicles with high emissions by implementing low emission zones (LEZs).

However, it appears that even the most modern diesel vehicles do not meet the emission specifications claimed by their producers.

In 2011, the European Commission adopted a ‘Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area- Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system’ with 40 concrete initiatives for the next decade, including achieving the goal of not allowing conventionally fuelled cars in cities. By only allowing ZERO[1] emission vehicles access to urban centers, any doubts about the real emissions from traffic can be avoided.

The process to switch to ZERO emission vehicles has just begun but it is likely to accelerate very fast partly in order to meet the international emission targets for 2020 and beyond, especially in Europe.

EBUSCO is fully committed to building the market for full electric buses in Europe and internationally

([1] Zero local emissions – the generation of electricity is not included in this calculation)

Description

The fully electric EBUSCO buses have a capacity up to 90 passengers and can drive up to 300km on one charge, this complies with the daily route distance requirements of most public transport companies in Europe.

The technology consists of an electric motor, an inverter and battery. The electric motor, controlled by an inverter, is directly connected to the rear axle of the bus. Demo-vehicles are equipped with a 75 kW on- board charger in order to be able to charge at anywhere that 380 volts and 63 amps is available. Regular fleet buses will be charged by a central charger. This charger is able to charge the bus with 1C, that means 311kW per hour which means 5 kW/min. At an energy consumption of 1kWh/km, this means the every minute of charge will allow 5km of driving. About 30% of the braking energy of the buses is also recovered.

Implementation

EBUSCO is an official registered bus producer that designs, develops and produces the vehicles and has its own World Manufacturer Identification (WMI) code. Since the foundation of the company in September 2012, EBUSCO has developed three 12m bus types and drive-lines. The latest one will be applied to our 12m as well as 18m vehicles in the future. The first type was officially tested under SORT-conditions by TNO on request of the Dutch government.

The first and second prototypes were intensively tested under operating conditions all over Scandinavia and in many big cities in Europe. Moreover they were extensively and successfully tested by VTT, the independent governmental test institute of Finland. Reports are available on request. The third prototype, with a high voltage drive line, will soon be presented at Busworld 2015.

So far, EBUSCO has delivered 12m buses with LFP (lithium ferro phosphate rechargeable) batteries and driving ranges between 250km (on one daily charge) or 350km per day (with one additional charge during the day). LFP batteries for 300km per charge of 311kWh at in-city operation can be delivered or buses charged by a pantograph and 80kWh LTO batteries for opportunity charging for 250-300km per day.

Ebusco2Photo – EBUSCO type 2.0 buses (cap. 250kWh, LFP batteries) delivered to Boreal, the public transport company of Stavanger, Norway driving 350km per day (one short intermediate charge)

So far, the EBUSCO buses comply to the forecasted total cost of ownership (TCO), which means that the costs per kilometer are lower than those of diesel buses.

Benefits

The benefits of the EBUSCO electric buses are twofold:

  1. The EBUSCO buses are 100% ZERO-EMISSION vehicles, that’s to say no direct emissions of CO2, NOx, and fine dust (PM10, and PM5) emissions.
  2. The Total Costs of Ownership (TCO) are lower than diesel buses due to their ultra low energy consumption (0,9 kWh/km at in-city operation and 0,62 kWh/km at constant speed on the high way), low maintenance costs and the much lower price of electric energy compared to diesel.
  3. Electric buses are also quieter than their diesel equivalents.

This means that the implementation of electric buses will substantially reduce the problems of CO2, NOx and PM and at the same time, considerably improves the economic operational result of the end user.

Potential for scaling up

The EU Transport White Paper proposals will dramatically reduce Europe’s dependence on imported oil and cut carbon emissions in transport by 60% by 2050. The scaling up of this technology can be facilitated by legislation and urban regulations aiming improving air quality in urban areas.

A strong economic argument in favor of electric public transport is the fact that the price per km (TCO) of these vehicles is already lower that the TCO of diesel buses. This will be reduced even more in a short time span because the price of batteries will decrease substantially, as increasing sales and the results of the huge efforts being put into battery development.

Selected references

  1. Performance of Battery Electric Buses in Practice: Energy Consumption and Range tno.nl/…/TNO2013R10212.pdf
  2. Omnibus Spiegel , December 2015/January 2015, ‘Team work over the continents’
  3. Many video´s on YouTube

PROJECT INFORMATION

Location:

Helmond, Netherlands

Start:

2012

Finish:

On-going

Tags:

Netherlands, Busses, passenger, Technology, Mitigation

Organizer/s:

Ebusco BV

Contact/s:

Peter Bijvelds, Walter Luijten and the members of their Team w.luijten@ebusco.eu

“About 5 years ago, the founders of EBUSCO started to investigate the feasibility of selling electric buses on the European market. The fact that governments were very positive about this, made them decide to design and produce their first full electric bus that could drive 250 km on one charge and consume 1kWh/km.
This bus was presented at the IAA (Hannover) in September 2012. The press and the big OEM’s reacted very positively, and Veolia Transport Finland ordered the bus right away and started an extensive test program. The results of these tests allowed further testing and direct sales in the other Scandinavian countries (Finland Norway, Denmark) and Germany (Bremen) helping to convince other Public Transport companies that electric transportation is now a reality.
Ever since EBUSCO is working on small and big tenders (up to 100 units) for public transport companies all over Europe and beyond.
In order to speed up the implementation of electric public transport, EBUSCO is offering their electric drive line and battery system to the regular bus producers that hesitated to go for electric drive lines but became aware that this process can and will not be stopped anymore because both the environmental and economic (Total Costs of Ownership, TCO) benefits give rise to implement the electric drive lines for buses as soon as possible.

- Walter Luijten